December 31, 2016

Youngblood's Fried Chicken Secret Recipe

UPDATE 2018:
My friend, Paul Galvani's book on Lost Restaurants of Houston came out in May 2018
He interviewed family members and writes about Youngblood's beginning on page 171 of his book and provides an updated recipe based on those interviews. It's a much simpler recipe than the one indicated further on in this piece.

Youngblood's Fried Chicken Batter
1/4 cup salt
1 cup milk
1 cup buttermilk


Dissolve salt in the milks. Dip chicken in the milks, then in the flour.

Amazon - Lost Restaurants of Houston by Paul Galvani

The people working for Youngblood's Fried Chicken back in the day went on to create their own, now famous, fried chicken franchises. Here is some information that I found on the web that needs to be preserved for future generations.

Kay Potts advised:
"Ok, people, here it is: 

This is the recipe for Leslie’s Fried Chicken, my mom and dad worked for both and they both used the same recipe

Have a bowl with flour, we have seasoned it a bit with white pepper and a bit of salt, to taste.

Dip your chicken pieces in the flour and then dip in the following mixture and back into the flour.

1 Cup powdered whey (Baking type- sweet powdered whey)

This is not readily available in grocery stores, we found in online at

3/4 cup powdered non/fat dry milk

1/4 cup salt (was a little salty- I might reduce this slightly next time)Try using just half of this or less, depending on how much you put in the flour.

2/3 cup water (I had to guess on the amount of water)

This mixture needs to be thin, the combination gives it the batter texture.

Dust chicken in flour, then into wet mix, then back into flour, shake off excess, cook in oil at 350 degrees for 12 minutes.

Evidently the whey is what gives it the flavor. We have also used buttermilk powder in place of the dry milk and whey and it comes pretty close! This works best in a deep fryer, rather than pan frying.

The crust is amazing, holds up well a couple of days in the fridge."

  • This is kind of interesting. I was going deep in the internet and came across a forum that was discussing Youngblood's > Leslie's > Church's Fried Chicken recipes. Both the Leslie's and Church's chains came out of Youngblood's. Here, supposedly is the secret recipe in industrial portions.

  • Jay Francis

    "You are not going to believe the original proportions. They used 7 lbs. salt, 2 lbs. whey, 1 lb dry milk. I asked him how they could use so much salt and have it taste good. He said it was mixed in a lot of water in proportion to the salt but that it still tasted very salty. Later they reduced the salt but he didn't know exactly how much. He said to add salt to taste which he said would be somewhere around 2 cups whey, 1 cup dry milk, and 1/4 cup of salt. It still tasted too salty to me and their measurements were by weight not by volume. So the only consistent thing we have is the 2 lbs whey and 1 lb dry milk, then salt to taste. This is all for the liquid part. I asked him if they seasoned the flour at all and he said they did not while he was with Youngblood's. When he moved to Denver and started the Drumstick chicken restaurants they did season the flour some but I don't know with what yet.
    He said when he makes fried chicken at home he puts white pepper and salt in the flour, then mixes 1 egg and 1 Tbsp. water for the wet mix. He dips the chicken in the flour, shakes off excess, dips it into the egg/water mix, and back into the flour, shakes off excess, then into 350 oil. 
    The other thing I want to try is to find cottonseed oil. They used it at Youngblood's and Leslie's because it was the cheapest and he said it lasted longer than the other oils. He said it didn't make any difference in taste but I can tell a difference between peanut oil, vegetable oil, and Crisco. So I wonder if the cottonseed added anything to the flavor. Another thought I had was that he was at Youngblood's in the 50s. I would imagine the recipe changed with time so they may have been seasoning things more in the 60s. I know Leslie's started using buttermilk in their wet mix. 
    Lot's of fried chicken to experiment with!! It may take us all but at least we have some direction. I really like the taste of the sweet whey in the mix. It added a flavor that is very nice."

    John Dupree Comments:
    John Dupree · 

    "Interesting. You call this Church's Fried Chicken, but you follow none of the recipe of the real thing. Not saying yours is bad chicken, but it just ain't Church's. I used to manage for them like 30+ years ago, and the first thing you have to do is marinate the chicken. The commercial recipe was 30 gallons of water, 25 lbs. of salt, and a 1-lb. "flavor packet," a euphemism for pure MSG. It marinates for 22 hours. We then cut the chickens up and panned the pieces. Coldness is the key! Chicken must be cold, and the batter must be ice cold! If the batter or chicken isn't cold, coating will fall off during cooking, and the shortening burns the chicken. Dredge the pieces in flour, dunk them in the cold batter (a very thin, watery mix I never learned the ingredients of), and dredge the chicken in flour again, and into the vegetable shortening, 340 degrees for 13 1/2 minutes."

Tom Faulkner

Tom Faulkner - Fried Chicken Skin Song

The great Tom Faulkner. From Dallas. A near perfect first album in terms of recording quality, songs, performance. Lost in the Land of Texico should be in everyone's collection. Here, though, is a clip from a few years back when he gave me a shout out at a performance over Easter week-end in La Grange, Texas. Ironically, the next day, Easter Sunday, on a backroads bluebonnet sightseeing slow drive back to Houston, we came across the annual Easter Sunday Moulton, Texas fried chicken lunch and my first introduction to the giant cast iron pots that are used in this part of the world to fry up huge amount of chicken.  Here's the video clip:

Fried Chicken Skin.

Do Bea's Dance. 

Praha 2017 - Road Trip to Praha Picnic August 15

Louisiana Road Trip - And A New Kind Of Batter To Try

In August, 2016, a group of five of us piled into an SUV for a day trip road trip to Lafayette and Breaux Bridge for po-boys and other Cajun/Creole deliciousness. After having terrific shrimp po-boys at Old Tyme Grocery and some classic Louisiana dishes at Des Amis we headed back to Houston, stopping at both Don's and Billy's in Scott, in order to sample and compare their cracklings and boudain balls.

While at Billy's, I came across a little self published recipe book in which a batter recipe was listed. What intrigued me was that it started with an oil base, to which one beat in flour, egg and milk. It was noted to be a thin batter. I was intrigued. Oil in a batter? Will have to try this one. If you get a chance to experiment with it, post me a note on how it came out.

Here are some photos from our road trip. Louisana cookin' is great.

The Fried Chicken Tracksuit!

Kenji Lopez-Alt (a hero of mine)

The Science (go to the Serious Eats link for the recipe)

The Food Lab: The Best Southern Fried Chicken

The ultimate fried chicken. [Photographs: J. Kenji Lopez-Alt]


Fried Chicken
Digging into the cluckin' awesome world of our favorite fried food.
My publishers over at W.W. Norton were kind enough to let me share one of the new recipes from my upcoming book, The Food Lab: Better Home Cooking Through Science with you guys here, which is good news because I've been DYING to share my Southern Fried Chicken recipe with you.
Here is the section and recipe from the book, in near-complete form. In the book, you'll also find a few extras, like instructions on how to double-fry your leftover chicken for even more crunch, a gallery of the more than 50 whole chickens I fried in the process of writing this recipe, and a do-it-yourself experiment that shows you the pros and cons of resting your chicken after dredging it in flour and before frying it. I hope you enjoy it. (And look out for my book in stores on September 21st, or preorder it through the link below to be the first kid on your block to get a copy!)

Southern-Style Fried Chicken

I know how passionate people can get about fried chicken, and I'm not one to tell you who makes the best, but if you were to ask Ed Levine, the Serious Eats overlord, he'd tell you that it's Gus's, a sixty-seven-year-old institution in Mason, Tennessee. They serve fried chicken that he describes as incredibly crunchy, with a crisp, craggy crust, juicy meat, and a "cosmic oneness" between the breading and the skin. We're talking fried chicken so good that you have to resort to metaphysics to make sense of it.
For me, as a kid growing up in New York, fried chicken came from one place, and one place only: those grease-stained cardboard buckets peddled by the Colonel himself. To my young mind, KFC's extra-crispy was about as good as it got. I distinctly remember eating it: picking the coating off in big, fat chunks; tasting the spicy, salty grease; and shredding the meat underneath with my fingers and delivering it to my waiting mouth. It was heavenly.
But times have changed, and as is often the case, revisiting those fond childhood memories results only in disappointment and disillusionment. All over the country, there's a fried chicken and soul food renaissance going on. Even the fanciest restaurants in New York are adding it to their menus. My eyes and my taste buds have been opened to what fried chicken truly can be. I may still dig the ultracrunchy, well-spiced crust that KFC puts on its birds, but that's about the only thing it has going for it. Flaccid skin, dry and stringy breast meat, and chicken that tastes like, well, it's hard to tell if it really tastes like anything once you get rid of the crust.
Even the breast meat should be juicy in good fried chicken.
That said, stylistically, it can't be faulted. So I figured that I could somehow manage to take what the Colonel started and bring it to its ultimate conclusion—that is, deep chicken flavor; a flab-free skin; juicy, tender meat; and crisp, spicy coating—I might just be able to recapture those first fleeting childhood tastes of fried chicken as I remembered them.

Inside Out

I started with a working recipe of chicken pieces simply dipped in buttermilk and tossed in flour seasoned with salt and black pepper, then fried in peanut oil at 325°F until cooked through. A few problems immediately became clear. First off, timing: By the time my chicken was cooked through (that's 150°F in the breasts and 165°F in the legs), the outer crust was a dark brown, bordering on black in spots. Not only that, but it didn't have nearly as much crunch as I wanted. Finally, the meat underneath the crust wasn't completely desiccated, but I wouldn't exactly describe it as moist, not to mention its rather bland flavor. I decided to fix my chicken from the inside out.
Looks crisp outside, but inside this chicken is dry.
*For those of you squeamish about "undercooked" chicken or who insist that breast meat must be cooked to 165°F to be safe and tasty, please read this discussion on real world food safety, which is quite different from what the U.S. government would have you believe.
The problem is that with fried chicken, the crisp well-seasoned coating is merely a surface treatment. None of that flavor penetrates very deeply. Surely brining and/or marinating should help with that problem? Brining is the process by which a lean meat (most often chicken, turkey, or pork) is submerged in a saltwater solution. As the meat sits, the saltwater will slowly dissolve key muscle proteins—most notably myosin, a protein that acts as a sort of glue, holding muscle fibers together). As the myosin dissolves, three things take place:
  • First, the ability of the meat to hold onto moisture increases. You can imagine meat as a series of long, skinny toothpaste tubes tied together. As you cook the meat, the tubes of toothpaste get squeezed, pushing out valuable juices. Breading will help mitigate this effect to a degree by slowing down the transfer of energy to the meat, but a significant amount of squeezing is still going to occur regardless of how well breaded the chicken is. Myosin is one of the key proteins responsible for this squeezing action, so by dissolving it, you prevent a lot of moisture loss from taking place.
  • Second, brining alters the texture of the meat by allowing dissolved proteins to cross-link with each other. This is the main principle behind sausage making—dissolved proteins can bond with each other, creating a pleasantly bouncy, tender texture. By brining a chicken breast or a pork chop, you're in effect giving it a very light cure—the same process that converts a raw ham into a supple prosciutto.
  • Third, as the brine slowly works its way into the meat, it seasons it beyond just the very surface. An overnight brine will penetrate a few millimeters into the meat, giving you built-in seasoning before you ever get to the breading. Brines also improve juiciness by increasing the muscles' ability to retain moisture. My normal brining for chicken breast is anywhere from 30 minutes to two hours. In this case, however, a much, much longer brining time was necessary in order to completely mitigate the effects of high-temperature frying, delivering a uniquely smooth, juicy texture to the meat.
A full six hours submerged in salt/sugar water produced the beauty below. Weighing the meat confirmed that an overnight-brined-then-fried bird loses about nine percent less moisture than an unbrined bird does and is significantly tastier.
Unbrined chicken on the left versus brined chicken on the right.
I've experimented with tossing certain animal preparations with a mixture of baking powder and salt a day in advance in order to improve their crispness. The salt acts as a brine, while the baking powder raises the pH of the skin, causing it to brown more efficiently and the thin film of protein-rich liquid around it to form microbubbles that can add crispness. I tried this method on my fried chicken, but it ended up drying the skin out too much, making it tough to get the breading to remain attached down the line.
Knowing that I'd be soaking my chicken in buttermilk the next day anyway, I wondered if I'd be able to kill two birds with one stone by replacing the water in the brine with buttermilk. Not only did the chicken come out just as moist as with water brine, it was actually significantly more tender as well, due to the tenderizing effects of buttermilk on food (soaking it for more than one night led to chicken that was so tender that it bordered on mush). Finally, hitting the buttermilk with spices helped build flavor right into the surface of the bird. I played around a bit with the mix before arriving at a blend of cayenne pepper and paprika (for their heat and peppery flavor), garlic powder**, a bit of dried oregano, and a healthy slug of freshly ground black pepper. The Colonel may use eleven secret herbs and spices in his chicken recipe, but five was quite enough for me (and both my wife and my doorman heartily concurred).
**Some folks shun garlic powder, saying that it's nothing like real garlic. I agree: garlic powder is nothing like real garlic. But that doesn't mean it doesn't have its culinary uses. It's particularly effective in spice rubs and breadings, where fresh garlic would be difficult to incorporate, due to its texture.

Crust Lust

Next up: add some extra crunch to that crust. I reasoned that there were a few ways to do this. First off, I wanted to increase the crust's thickness. I tried double-dipping my chicken—that is, dredging the brined chicken in flour (seasoned with the same spice blend as my brine), dipping it back into the buttermilk, and then dredging it once more in flour before frying, a method chef Thomas Keller uses for his justifiably famous fried chicken at Ad Hoc. This worked marginally better—that second coat definitely developed more crags than the first coat did. But it also made for an extremely thick breading that had a tendency to fall off the breast because of its heft.***
***You may notice the redness of the center of the chicken. This is not because it is undercooked, but because I cracked the bone when cutting it open, revealing some of the chicken's red marrow. Occasionally bones may snap or crack on their own, or while you are breaking down the chicken, leaving a few red spots inside the chicken even when it is fully cooked. This should not alarm you.
A double coating of flour creates a thick crust that falls off the chicken.
Much better was to simply add a bit of extra structure to the breading in the form of an egg mixed into the buttermilk.
My crust was certainly thick enough now, but I ran into another problem: rather than crisp and crunchy, it was bordering on tough, almost rock-like in its density. Knowing that gluten—the network of proteins formed when flour meets water—was the most likely culprit, I sought out ways to minimize its formation. First and foremost: cut the protein-rich wheat flour with cornstarch, a pure starch that adds moisture-absorbing capabilities to the breading without adding excess protein. Replacing a quarter of the flour worked well. Adding a couple teaspoons of baking powder to the mix helped bring a bit of air to the mix, forming a crust that was lighter and crisper, with increased surface area (and we all know that more surface area = more crispness, right?).
Adding buttermilk to the dredge creates the extra-craggy surface on the left.
Finally, I used a trick that a friend, a former employee of the Chick-fil-A Southern fast-food fried-chicken chain had told me about. He'd mentioned that once the chicken was breaded, the later batches always come out better than the earlier ones as bits of the flour mixture clumped together, making for an extra-craggy coat. Adding a couple tablespoons of buttermilk to the breading mix and working it in with my fingertips before dredging the chicken simulated this effect nicely.****
****This method is also employed in Cook's Country magazine's fried chicken recipe.
The last problem—the coating overcooking long before the chicken is cooked through to the center—was simple to solve. Just fry the chicken until golden brown, then transfer it to a hot oven to finish cooking at a gentler pace. The result is chicken with a deep brown, craggy crust that's shatteringly crisp but not tough and that breaks away to meat that bursts with intensely seasoned juices underneath.

Clarifying Used Oil With Gelatin - Mind Blown!

Kenji Lopez-Alt has published a method for clarifying used frying oil with gelatin. Here is the link, followed by the actual article.

The Food Lab: A Mind-Blowing Technique for Cleaning Deep-Fry Oil Using Gelatin

I get emails from readers packed with fun stories, family recipes, and interesting tips, techniques, and questions all the time, but it's rare that I get one with a technique that completely blows my mind. This is one of those occasions.
Here's the short of it: You can use gelatin to filter cruddy used deep-frying oil until it is crystal clear, and the technique is easier than any other method I know, requiring no wire strainers or coffee filters or extensive clean-up. If you are impatient, you can jump straight down to the directions and get to clarifying, but read on for more details on the testing.

How Gelatin Clarification Works

The email I got suggested, in a nutshell, dissolving some powdered gelatin in boiling water, then stirring that hot water into used deep-frying oil before letting it rest overnight. As the gelatin settles and sets, it should end up trapping impurities in it, leaving clean oil behind.
Wait, what? This sounded way too good to be true.
The idea of using gelatin to clarify stock is relatively new. It first came to my attention around 2009 (I probably first read about it on Dave Arnold's Cooking Issues blog). Gelatin is a protein that forms an interconnected, weblike matrix when dissolved in water. Not only does the gelatin give the water structure (think: Jell-O), it can also suspend other dissolved and undissolved solids in its matrix.
To gelatin-clarify, you first freeze a gelatin-rich stock, then slowly let it defrost in a strainer or wrapped in cheesecloth. As it defrosts, the network of interconnected gelatin proteins traps impurities, letting a crystal-clear consommé drip out of the bottom, with no need to skim, strain, or simmer.
But using gelatin to clarify oil? Now that was something really new, and frankly, if it worked, far more useful for the average home cook, who probably has no need to make consomm√© but often ends up wondering, "Can I use this oil again?"
I was skeptical. Stock clarification works because gelatin dissolves readily in hot water. Would mixing gelatin-rich water with oil really filter out impurities, when the gelatin is not even technically dissolving in that oil? Only one way to find out.

The Testing: Fat Clarification Using Gelatin

I happened to have a small pot of particularly well-used oil on hand (previously used to fry a few batches of vegetable tempura, as well as some chicken-fried shrimp). I dissolved a teaspoon of gelatin in a half cup of boiling water, then dutifully stirred it vigorously into the dirty oil before transferring it all to an airtight container and setting it in the fridge to encourage the gelatin to solidify.
The next morning, I pulled out the container, poured the oil out into a small pot, and discovered this:
Holy cow, this may have really worked! I was left with a solid disk of gelatin, filled with specks of burnt flour and other assorted gunk. Everything was looking great so far. Now for the true test: Could I cook in it?
I heated up the clarified oil on the stovetop and was alarmed, as it started bubbling a little while heating—an indication that there were still at least a few microscopic droplets of water in the fat—but with a little shaking, the bubbles soon completely dissipated, and the oil continued to heat up just like any fresh oil would. Once it hit the desired temperature, I fried a few pieces of green bean tempura in it, followed by a small batch of fried chicken. Both recipes came out perfect, as if they'd been cooked in not-quite-fresh-but-still-super-clean oil (bear in mind, this oil was on its last legs before I filtered it).
Incredible! Not only did the oil come out cleaner and more usable than it would with any other method I've ever tried, the process was also far easier. Instead of having to clean out a strainer (not a fun task), all I had to do was pop out that disk of hardened gelatin, complete with all the trapped flotsam and jetsam, and toss it in the compost.
Obviously this technique is going to have to be refined and codified for optimizing the gelatin-to-water ratio, the temperature of the water, how vigorously it's mixed into the oil, et cetera, but I'm just so darn excited about the prospects that I couldn't resist sharing it right away.

How to Gelatin-Clarify Oil

  1. After deep-frying, allow your cooking fat to cool to room temperature or slightly warmer.
  2. Measure into a small pot half a cup of water for every quart of used oil. Sprinkle it with one teaspoon of powdered gelatin per half cup of water, and let the gelatin hydrate for a few minutes.
  3. Bring the water to a simmer (you can do this on the stovetop or in the microwave), stirring, until the gelatin dissolves. Stirring vigorously and constantly, pour the gelatin/water mixture into the dirty oil. It should look very cloudy and relatively homogeneous at this stage. Cover the pot and place it in the refrigerator (or transfer the mixture to a separate container before refrigerating), then allow it to rest overnight.
  4. The next day, pour the oil from the top of the pot or container into a separate clean, dry pot. Discard the disk of gelatin that remains. The clarified oil is ready to use.
N.B.: The first time you use the clarified oil, you'll find that as it heats up, it will start to bubble a little bit. This is okay. Swirl the pan gently as it bubbles to help release any remaining droplets of water. It will eventually settle down until it's ready for frying.

Cook's Country Recipe - Latin Style Fried Chicken

What interested me about this recipe. The spicing of course. And the fact that it is designed to be fried at 325 F. And that it is an egg wash with a flour/cornstarch batter, which they say results in a thin and crunchy crust. On the show, I was impressed that the 15 minute fry at 325 F didn't over brown the crust. It came out looking very golden in color. Which is a good thing. See notes on how it really turned out, following the recipe information.

Weekend Recipe: Latin Fried Chicken

Photo courtesy of Cook's Country
Photo courtesy of Cook's Country
Sometimes we crave the familiarity of crispy fried chicken, but the unexpected Latin flavors make this batch especially drool-worthy. This makes a great summer meal and is pretty great as picnic food, too. Cook's Country says to be sure not to marinate for more than two hours or the acid from the lime will toughen the chicken.
Latin Fried Chicken 
Serves 4
2 tablespoons kosher salt
6 garlic cloves, chopped coarse
1 tablespoon pepper
1 tablespoon ground cumin
2 teaspoons smoked paprika
2 teaspoons dried oregano
2 teaspoons grated lime zest plus 1/4 cup juice (2 limes)
3 pounds bone-in chicken pieces (split breasts cut in half crosswise, drumsticks, thighs, and/or wings), trimmed
1 1/4 cups all-purpose flour
3/4 cup cornstarch
1 tablespoon pepper
1 tablespoon granulated garlic
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon white pepper
1 teaspoon kosher salt
1 teaspoon ground cumin
1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper
3 large egg whites, lightly beaten
Frying oil 3 quarts vegetable or peanut oil
For the marinade: Combine salt, garlic, pepper, cumin, paprika, oregano, and lime zest and juice in bowl. Add chicken and turn to coat thoroughly. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 1 hour or up to 2 hours.
For the coating: Whisk flour, cornstarch, pepper, granulated garlic, baking powder, white pepper, salt, cumin, and cayenne together in bowl. Place egg whites in shallow dish.
Set wire rack in rimmed baking sheet. Remove chicken from marinade and scrape off solids. Pat chicken dry with paper towels. Working with 1 piece at a time, dip chicken into egg whites to thoroughly coat, letting excess drip back into dish. Dredge chicken in flour mixture, pressing to adhere. Transfer chicken to prepared wire rack and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes or up to 2 hours.
Add oil to large Dutch oven (6 quarts or more) until it measures about 2 inches deep and heat over medium-high heat to 325 degrees. Add half of chicken to hot oil and fry until breasts register 160 degrees and drumsticks/thighs register 175 degrees, 13 to 16 minutes. Adjust burner, if necessary, to maintain oil temperature between 300 and 325 degrees. Transfer chicken to clean wire rack set in rimmed baking sheet. Return oil to 325 degrees and repeat with remaining chicken. Serve.

Update: July 31, 2016. The recipe was tested out. Met up with good friends and we did the recipe from scratch. Everything went smoothly with no hitches. The chicken pieces were huge and we ended up cutting the chicken breasts into 3 pieces each. A group of 5 of us decided that we liked the recipe but that there wasn't an OMG moment and we probably wouldn't need to make this again. The crust was very good. This was the first time any of us had experimented with an egg white dip before the dry mix dip. Less water, less gluten development. Some real crunch in the final product.